The paper is primarily aimed at businesses, entrepreneurs, start-ups and not for proﬁts interested in designing education innovations that reach less wealthy market segments in Pakistan and elsewhere. The case-studies are intended to spark ideas about how to make business-based education solutions accessible to a bigger market and to markets that may reap the biggest beneﬁts from using them.
Each of the start-ups has used different strategies to make their solution more affordable to students from lower/lower-middle income households and/or to low-fee schools.
For the purpose of this paper, low income households are deﬁned as households with a monthly household income of less than Rs. 33,000 ($8 per day). Low fee schools are deﬁned as having school fees less than Rs. 1,200 per month ($8.6).